Causes of Fluorosis in India, Symptoms and Preventive measures: A Brief Review

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Anand Kumar


Fluoride is the thirteenth most abundant element of the earth crusts. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride is double sward for men, its small amount (is greater than 0.5 mg/L) is promoting dental health by reducing dental caries and strengthening bones, whereas it’s higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. Fluorosis is a crippling disease caused by the long term ingestion of fluoride rich drinking water and food stuffs. The effect of fluorosis is not only limited up to bone deformities but also it may causes many nonskeletal manifestations include neurological, muscular, cardiovascular, reproductive, allergic and gastrointestinal symptoms. It is estimated that about 200 million people, among 25 nations world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. Therefore, there is need to develop effective strategies and provide fluoride safe drinking water to rural communities. Present study focuses on evaluation of status of fluoride contamination in groundwater in India, its adverse effects on human health and possible remedial measures.

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Kumar A. Causes of Fluorosis in India, Symptoms and Preventive measures: A Brief Review. ANSDN [Internet]. 31Jul.2022 [cited 29Jan.2023];10(01):. Available from:
Review Article