Bi-ionic Potential: Experimental Measurements and Wastewater Treatment Applications

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Afren Ansari
Ayub Ansari
Ramesh Kumar Prajapati
K S Dadoriya


The parchment impregnated chromium tungstate synthetic membrane was fabricated successfully and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. The bi-ionic potential values across chromium tungstate membrane with various combinations of 2:1 electrolytes (MgCl2, CaCl2 and ZnCl2) at same concentrations have been measured. Theoretical values of BIP have been calculated using the bi-ionic potential theories developed recently by Toyoshima and Nozaki based on principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A comparison of experimental and theoretical bi-ionic potential values shows that theoretical equations of bi-ionic potential are applicable to the parchment impregnated membrane. The prepared membrane can be considered as an excellent material for wastewater treatment applications.

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Ansari A, Ansari A, Prajapati R, Dadoriya K. Bi-ionic Potential: Experimental Measurements and Wastewater Treatment Applications. ANSDN [Internet]. 31Jul.2022 [cited 29Jan.2023];10(01):. Available from:
Review Article